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LARC162: Environmental Justice: Same World, Different Built Environment

Use this guide to find resources and assistance for your course projects!

APA Overview

Using APA

How APA citations work:

  • You cite a reference where you use it in the text with the format of (Author, Year)
  • Then you list the full citation at the end of your paper, with the list in alphabetical order:
    • Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title, additional information. DOI or URL
    • This changes depending on the type of reference with additional authors being included and/or the title of a book or journal being used for a shorter work appearing in a larger work (i.e. an article appearing in a journal or a book chapter)
  • Each citation used in the text should be found in the reference list at the end of your paper and vice versa - remember the goal is to give the reader enough information to look up the reference themselves if they wish.

How do I...? Common questions about APA - follow the links for details

  • Format my citations?
    • Try a citation manager! These work with MS Word and do all the formatting for you - just check the data input and output (like using spell check - you still need to proof-read!). Check out our guide on citation managers (link above) and start using Zotero, Mendeley, or EndNote.
  • Cite ebooks?
    • You can cite them just like a regular book, but with a DOI or URL included
  • Cite websites?
    • Websites can be cited with just knowing who produces it and the URL, but it is recommended to also include the author (if one is listed), year lasted edited or when you accessed it, title of the page, and if it may change over time, the day you accessed it.
  • Cite pictures, images, photographs...?
    • These are cited like other sources with the title in italics, but with the medium in brackets or a description in brackets if no title exists.See the link above for examples of image citation. For example, if you cite a photo someone published, you would list the title in italics (just like other sources), but follow that with [photograph] before continuing the citation.

For more details see the full guide on APA Style by UMGC or APA's website.

More on APA Citations

Examples from the blog:

1. The author is an organization, not an individual

Paper from Organization Ministry of Education and Sports
Paper from the Ministry of Education and Sports Uganda
In-Text Citation: 
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the Republic of Uganda. Ministry of Education and Sports (2013),...

 Reference List - Author 
Organization as Author: 
Republic of Uganda. Ministry of Education and Sports. (2013). National Strategy for Girls’ Education (NSGE) in Uganda (2015 – 2019). Retrieved from


2. How do you cite an entire website (but not a specific document on that site)?

When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text. 
Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive website for children (


3. How to cite data 

Reference Example from APA

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental
    Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2013). Treatment
    episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009
    set]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2

Because this data set has a DOI, the reference includes that DOI. For data sets without a DOI, the URL should be included in the reference, like this: "Retrieved from"

Example of data from the World Bank
World Bank Data Example

The World Bank. (2019). Life expectancy at birth, (total years), Ghana, 2012-2016 [Data Set]. Retrieved from