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Citation Guide

How and when to cite sources.

Subject Librarian

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Steve Henry


You have three basic types of citation: the non-quoted, the short quote, and the block quote. Here is how they work:


These go straight into the body of text.

Example: Mr. Anderson's study regards the physics of flying and dodging bullets in imaginary worlds.

Just stick that right into your paragraph and add a superscript number that corresponds with your citation information below or a parenthetical citation.


These also go straight into the body of the text. They must take up less than THREE lines of text.

Example: Shirley states, "Many dogs do not have a self perception of being dogs."

Cite as above. If your quote is longer than three lines you have a block quote.

Block Quote

I love these because they look really neat. Check it out.

Pirates like James Hook often feel ghost pains similar to those felt by other amputees:

It's as though I can nearly feel my hand. When I'm stressed, pain shoots through my wrist, but I know my hand is missing. Alas, when it was bitten off by that barnacle covered crocodile I was quite sure I could not go on as a pirate. Fortunately, modern times have seen the invention of such great technology that soon I may have the opportunity to trade in my vintage hook for an artificial limb and at least then my pain will make more sense, despite laving a hand without real nerves (Hook, Rowdy Buccaneers).

Captain Hook is just one of many pirates who is exploring new advances in artificial limbs to make sense of their ghost pains.

First of all, I made that up too. Do not make up quotes! There is an easy way to find out whether what you wrote actually exists. I am solely making things up for demonstrative purposes. Things to notice about block quotes:

  • The entire thing should be indented and justified.
  • The top of the quote is not indented further.
  • There are no quotation marks.
  • The reflection on the quote is not indented as a new paragraph.