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JOUR447 - Special Topics in Journalism: Sports, Protest and the Media

Guide to selected resources for students preparing the annotated bibliography required in Prof. Kevin Blackistone's JOUR447 class.

Primary Sources

Primary Sources are considered original research materials. They are from the time period involved, and can include first-person narratives of the event. Normally, other research can be based on primary source materials. Primary sources can include (but are not limited to):

  • Audio Recordings
  • Diaries
  • Interviews
  • Letters
  • Newspaper articles written at the time
  • Photographs
  • Speeches
  • Video footage

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are written after the fact and generally include interpretation or evaluation of primary source material. Secondary sources are not evidence in and of themselves, but analyze or provide commentary on evidence. These sources can include (but are not limited to):

  • Bibliographies
  • Biographies
  • Dictionaries
  • Histories 
  • Journal articles
  • Textbooks


Tertiary Sources

Tertiary sources are those resources that compile and distill results of primary and secondary sources. (Note: The bibliography required for JOUR458M can be considered a type of tertiary source.) Tertiary sources can include (but are not limited to):

  • Almanacs
  • Bibliographies
  • Encyclopedias
  • Indexes