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Introduction to Turabian Citation Style

What is Turabian? And Why?

Turabian is the citation style (just like MLA or APA), that is used by the Architecture Program at the University of Maryland's School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. Stylistically, Turabian is very similar to the Chicago Citation Style, with a few differences. 

Why do we cite our research sources? When you do research, you are entering into a conversation with other scholars. It is important to differentiate between your ideas and the scholars whose work you are reading. You have every right to join the discussion, and you also need to respect the other people involved in the research. So, you cite other peoples scholarship and ideas, as a way of getting into the scholarly conversation.

Like Chicago, Turabian uses footnotes for In-Text Citations. The footnote is the notation, or citation, that can be found at the bottom of each page. This guide will show you how to format a note, a shortened note (which can be used when citing the same source a second time in a paper), and a bibliography in the Turabian Style. This is also known as the Notes-Bibliography Style.

While this guide focuses on citations for journal articles, books, and eBooks, more information about citations for different documents may be found in the Turabian Manual for Writers.

Turabian Style Citations (This guide provides examples of articles, book chapters, website content as well)


What is a citation? The who, what, where, and when of your sources.

Who = Author

What = Title of Book; OR Title of Article, and title of Journal that the article is in.

Where = Publisher information

When = date of publication


Citations take two forms. 

1) Footnote: a notation in the body of your paper, citing the source of a particular idea or actual words. 

2)Bibliography: A list of sources at the end of the paper. 


Footnote: These are located at the bottom of each page, the ‘foot’ of the page.

Footnotes get numbered sequentially - 1, 2, 3, and so on. They also include the page number where your quoted idea or words come from.


  1. First name last name(comma) Title of book(in italics) (Open parenthesis)Publisher location by city(colon) Publisher name(comma) Date of publication by year(closed parenthesis)(comma) page number(period)


Michele Lamprakos, Building a World Heritage City: Sanaa, Yemen (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015) 25.


Bibliography: The bibliography is located at the end of your paper, and is ordered alphabetically, by the author’s last name. There are no parentheses in the bibliography. If the bibliographic citation continues onto the second line, the second line should be indented. Under format, indent options, this style is called ‘hanging’.


Last name(comma) First name(period) Title of book(in italics)(period) Publisher location by city(colon) Publisher name(comma) Date of publication by year(period)


Lamprakos, Michele. Building a World Heritage City: Sanaa, Yemen. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015.


This was prepared for the Architecture Program at the School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, University of Maryland, by librarian Cindy Frank, September 24, 2020

Footnote Example

This is a research paper. I am writing about the architecture of the Colosseum and will be using a few books and journal articles to do my research. I am writing my paper in the Turabian style and my in-text citations will be done using footnotes[1]. An in-text citation is "a reference made within the body of an academic essay[2]. The in-text citation alerts the reader to a source that has informed your own writing." Sometimes you may use the same source more than once in your paper. The second time you use a source, you can use a shortened note, since you have already cited that source once before[3].


[1] “Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations,” Turabian: A Manual for Writers, accessed March 2, 2020,

[2] “In-Text Citations: The What, Why and When,” Cite This For Me, last modified December 15, 2017,

[3] Turabian: A Manual for Writers, “Notes and Bibliography.”