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Introduction to Turabian Citation Style

What is Turabian?

Turabian is a citation style (just like MLA or APA), that is used by the University of Maryland's School of Architecture. Stylistically, Turabian is very similar to the Chicago Citation Style, with a few differences. 

Like Chicago, Turabian uses footnotes for In-Text Citations, which can be found at the bottom of each page. This guide will show you how to format a note, a shortened note (which can be used when citing the same source a second time in a paper), and a bibliography in the Turabian Style. 

While this guide focuses on citations for journal articles, books, and eBooks, more information about citations for different documents may be found in the Turabian Manual for Writers.

Footnote Example

This is a research paper. I am writing about the architecture of the Colosseum and will be using a few books and journal articles to do my research. I am writing my paper in the Turabian style and my in-text citations will be done using footnotes[1]. An in-text citation is "a reference made within the body of an academic essay[2]. The in-text citation alerts the reader to a source that has informed your own writing." Sometimes you may use the same source more than once in your paper. The second time you use a source, you can use a shortened note, since you have already cited that source once before[3].


[1] “Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations,” Turabian: A Manual for Writers, accessed March 2, 2020,

[2] “In-Text Citations: The What, Why and When,” Cite This For Me, last modified December 15, 2017,

[3] Turabian: A Manual for Writers, “Notes and Bibliography.”