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Architecture: Design Research

This guide covers how to identify relevant and reliable sources for research, how to navigate online and in-person resources at the University of Maryland, and how to cite sources within a research product.

Turabian Citations

The UMD Architecture Program recommends using the Turabian Notes and Bibliography style for citing sources. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. 

For more information and examples, see the Turabian Citation Quick Guide

Turabian Style Citations

What is a citation? The who, what, where, and when of your sources.

Who = Author

What = Title of Book; OR Title of Article, and title of Journal that the article is in.

Where = Publisher information

When = date of publication

Citations take two forms. 

1) Footnote: a notation in the body of your paper, citing the source of a particular idea or actual words. 

2)Bibliography: A list of sources at the end of the paper. 

Footnote: These are located at the bottom of each page, the ‘foot’ of the page.

Footnotes get numbered sequentially - 1, 2, 3, and so on. They also include the page number where your quoted idea or words come from.


  1. First name last name(comma) Title of book(in italics) (Open parenthesis)Publisher location by city(colon) Publisher name(comma) Date of publication by year(closed parenthesis)(comma) page number(period)


Michele Lamprakos, Building a World Heritage City: Sanaa, Yemen (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015) 25.


Bibliography: The bibliography is located at the end of your paper, and is ordered alphabetically, by the author’s last name. There are no parentheses in the bibliography. If the bibliographic citation continues onto the second line, the second line should be indented. Under format, indent options, this style is called ‘hanging’.


Last name(comma) First name(period) Title of book(in italics)(period) Publisher location by city(colon) Publisher name(comma) Date of publication by year(period)


Lamprakos, Michele. Building a World Heritage City: Sanaa, Yemen. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015.


See Also these video Tutorials to help with your citations:

Turabian Citations Module 1

Turabian Citations Module 2

This was prepared for the Architecture Program at the School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, University of Maryland, by librarian Cindy Frank, September 24, 2020

Citation Tools and Guides

Why should I cite my sources?

Citations help increase your credibility and reinforce your arguments. A citation is a way for you to give credit where credit is due. You read some things and either agree with, or disagree with, the author. You should state who the author is, and what they wrote. That is citing your source. Furthermore, there are serious repercussions for failing to follow citing conventions. Citing ideas and information from your sources is necessary to give the creator proper credit and to allow other researchers to find the research you used.

This video from the NCSU Libraries can help you get a more detailed idea about how and why to cite your sources.

You can find additional citation guides and resources below: 

How do I keep track of citations? 

When examining sources, keep track of: 

  • Journal Title
  • Author(s)
  • Article Title
  • Volume/issue
  • Year
  • Pages

If you are going through a large number of sources, it may be helpful to use an add-on like Zotero or another citation management tool to automatically save sources in your web browser. 

Quick Citations:

Still unsure how to cite your sources? There are a number of resources available to help make creating citations quick and easy. Look for a "cite" button on your source's database webpage. Additionally, you can cite most sources by going through WorldCatUMD and clicking the "cite" button connected to your source.