Skip to main content

Women & the American Civil War

A guide to primary and secondary sources on the topic of Women and the American Civil War, with a focus on women in Maryland.

Introduction to the Bibliography

Women on the Border Exhibit poster

This bibliography provides a listing of the sources, both primary and secondary, used to create and inform the exhibit Women on the Border: Maryland Perspectives of the Civil War, which was on display in the Maryland Room Gallery of Hornbake Library at the University of Maryland, College Park, from September 2011 to mid-July 2012.  The information and sources are now available in a digital version of the gallery exhibition.  The most of the primary sources listed here were on display in the exhibition, while the secondary sources are the monographs, articles, and reference materials that were consulted in the course of historical research for the exhibititon.  Call numbers to materials held in the University of Maryland Libraries are noted in [brackets] following each entry. Hyperlinks to online catalog records, finding aids to manuscript collections, and/or digital copies of sources, when available, are provided as much as possible.  Addtional information about the bibliography and the exhibition can be obtained by viewing the digital version of the exhibition (click on the exhibition poster at left), and/or by contacting the curator (see contact information).

Bibiliography

Women on the Border: Maryland Perspectives of the Civil War Exhibition Bibliography

Introduction: Women and the War; On the Border; and Historical Research

Primary Sources

Engraving of Barbara Frietchie, artist and publisher unknown, Celia Holland Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

"The Influence of Woman,” Harpers Weekly, September 6, 1862, pages 568-569 [new acquisition to the MD Rare Books collection; Mircofilm available in McKeldin Periodicals AP2.H32]

"The Lexington of 1861," New York: Currier & Ives, 1861?, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91721234/

"The Slain at Baltimore" lyric sheet, Philadelphia: A.W. Auner, 1861?, Maryland Manuscripts Collection #5460, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Brugger, Robert J. Maryland, A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980.  Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. [MD Stacks F181 .B85 1988]

Chaudhuri, Nupur, Sherry J. Katz, and Mary Elizabeth Perry, eds. Contesting Archives:Finding Women in the Sources. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010. [McKeldin Stacks HQ1121 .C63815 2010]

Clinton, Catherine, and Nina Silber.  Battle Scars: Gender and Sexuality in the American Civil War.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [McKeldin Stacks HQ 1075.5.U6B38 2006]

Cottom, Robert I., and Mary Ellen Hayward. Maryland in the Civil War: A House Divided.  Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1994. [MD Folio F185 .C68 1994]

Evitts, William J. A Matter of Allegiances, Maryland from 1850 to 1861. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974. [MD Stacks H31.J6 ser.92   no.1]

Fields, Barbara Jean. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.  [MD Stacks E445.M3F54 1985]

Massey, Mary Elizabeth.  Women in the Civil War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.   [Reprint of Bonnet Brigades McKeldin Stacks E628 .M3]

Mitchell, Charles W., ed. Maryland Voices of the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. [MD Stacks E512 .M58 2007]

Case 1: Mary Richardson, "Free Woman"

Primary Sources

Bond, Isaac. Map of Frederick County, Maryland Map Collection, FR031, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Four Frederick County Circuit Court docmuents related to the trial of Mary Richardson, 1860, Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #1018-1021, Special Collections, University of  Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

The Frederick Examiner, October 24, 1860. [McKedlin Microfilm AN41.441.F7 E9]

The New-York Illustrated News, August 23, 1862, Demorest’s New-York Illustrated News Woodcut Collection, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Fields, Barbara Jean. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.  [MD Stacks E445.M3F54 1985]

Maryland State Archives. “The Maryland State Archives Presents Beneath the Underground Railroad: The Flight to Freedom and Communities in Antebellum Maryland An Archives of Maryland Electronic Publication.” Maryland State Archives. http://www.mdslavery.net/ugrr.html  (accessed August 18, 2011).

Case 2: Maryland Women’s Activism: Southern Sympathizers and Loyal Ladies

Primary Sources

Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  New York: Frank Leslie, May 14, 1864. [McKeldin Mircofilm AN41.441.F7 E9]

Loyal Ladies of Cambridge County, Maryland.  Letter to F.L. Olmsted.”  March 10, 1862., Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #3896, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Phelps, Mrs. Lincoln, editor.  Our Country, in its Relations to the Past, Present, and Future: A National Book.  Baltimore: John D. Toy, 1864. [MD Rare Stacks E464.P53]  

Report of the Ladies’ Southern Relief Association of Maryland.  Baltimore: Kelly & Piet, September 1, 1866. [MD Rare Stacks E629.L152]   

United States Christian Commission. Third Report of the Committee of Maryland.  Baltimore: Printed by James Young, 1864. [MD Rare Stacks E635.U5 1864]  

United States Christian Commission.  Fourth Report of the Committee of Maryland.  Baltimore: Innes & Maguire, 1866. [MD Rare Stacks E635.U5 1866]

Women of Maryland.  An Appeal for Peace Sent to Lieut. Gen. Scott.” July 4, 1861, Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #4334, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Bardaglio, Peter W.  “On the Border: White Children and the Politics of War in Maryland.”  In The War Was You and Me, edited by Joan E. Cashin, 313-331.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. [McKeldin Stacks E468.9.W28 2002]

Schoeberlin, Robert W. "A Fair to Remember: Maryland Women in Aid of the Union."  Maryland Historical Magazine, 90, no. 4 (1995): 467-488. [MD Stacks F176.M18]

Scott, Anne Firor. Natural Allies: Women's Association in American History.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991. [McKeldin Stacks HQ1904.S28 1993]

Case 3: “Maryland, My Maryland”: Women, War, and Song

Primary Sources

Krummacher, Hans.  "Union March."  Baltimore: Henry McCaffrey, 1860. Maryland Sheet Music Collection #151, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

“Love’s Chidings, Beautiful Ballad by Nannie," 1862. Maryland Sheet Music Collection, Bound Volume B, #197, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

"Maryland, My Maryland! Union Words Adapted, and Music Arranged." Philadelphia: Published by Septimus Winner, 1862. Maryland Sheet Music Collection #592, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

"Maryland! My Maryland, Written by A Baltimorean in Louisianna [sic], Music Adapted & Arranged by C.E.”  Baltimore: Miller & Beacham, 1861. Maryland Sheet Music Collection, Bound Volume B, #795, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Munzinger, C. "Maryland My Maryland Schottisch," Philadelphia, 1862. Maryland Sheet Music Collection #196, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Osborn, E.H. "Mother Dearest, I Am Coming." Baltimore: Henry McCaffrey, 1863.  Maryland Sheet Music Collection #181, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Sutro, Otto.  "A Mother’s Prayer.”  Baltimore: Henry McCaffrey, 1862. Maryland Sheet Music Collection, Bound Volume B, #266, Special Collections in Performing Arts, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Woods’ Baltimore City Directory, Baltimore: John W. Woods, 1864. [MD Rare Stacks F189.B1A14 1864]

Secondary Sources

Bailey, Candace.  Music and the Southern Belle: From Accomplished Lady to Confederate Composer.  Carbondale, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2010. [PAL Stacks ML82 .B25 2010]

Faust, Drew Gilpin.  Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War.  Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. [McKeldin Stacks E628.F35 1996]

Johnson, Robert H., Jr.  “James Ryder Randall and ‘Maryland, My Maryland,’” Maryland Historical Magazine 105, 2 (Summer 2010): 132-145. [MD Stacks F176. M18]

The Story of Maryland’s State Song: An Official Publication of the State of Maryland.” Annapolis, MD.: Dept. of Economic Development, 1959. [MD Stacks ML3561.M3 S7 1959]

Case 4: “…the unladylike and outrageous manner”: Letters from Annapolis

Primary Sources

Letter from Union soldier John W. Sturtevant to his family in New Hampshire; news and conditions at U.S. General Hospital at Annapolis, sketch of hospital. December 8, 1864. Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #4273, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Sterling Family Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Brugger, Robert J. Maryland, A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. [MD Stacks F181 .B85 1988]

Feil, Libby, “Who Were They?,” Sterling Family Papers online exhibit, University of Maryland Libraries, (accessed April 12, 2011).

Mitchell, Charles W., ed. Maryland Voices of the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. [MD Stacks E512 .M58 2007]

Case 5: “Reply…By a Baltimore Lady”: Published Works By and About Women

Primary Sources

“A Female Rebel in Baltimore – An Everyday Scene,” Harper’s Weekly, September 7, 1861.

Burhaus Family Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Carroll, Anna Ella.  Reply to the Speech of Hon. J. C. Breckinridge delivered in the  United States Senate, July 16th, 1861. Washington, D.C.: H. Polkinhorn, 1861. [MD  Rare Stacks E 458.1.B84 1861]

Lemmon, Miss N. (or Fannie Harwood).  “Reply to the Volunteer Zouave by a Baltimore Lady,” in A. D. 1862, or, The Volunteer Zouave in Baltimore, 6-7.  Baltimore: J. Davis & Co, 1862. [MD Rare Stacks F189.B1 M89 1862]

Morris, Thomas Hollingsworth.  A.D. 1862, or, How They Act in Baltimore.Baltimore: Jas. S. Waters, circa 1862. [MD Rare Stacks F189.B1 M88 1862]

Mason, Emily V.  The Southern Poems of the War.  Baltimore: John Murphy & Co.,  1867. [MD Rare Stacks PS551.M3 1867]

Phelps, Lincoln Mrs., ed.  Our Country, in its Relations to the Past, Present, and Future: a National Book. Baltimore: J.D. Toy, 1864.  [MD Rare Stacks E464 .P53.]

Ridgely, N.G. A.D. 1862, or, The Volunteer Zouave in Baltimore.  Baltimore: J. Davis & Co., 1862. [MD Rare Stacks F189.B1 M89]

Stowe, Harriet Beecher.  Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or, Life Among the Lowly. Boston : J.P.  Jewett ; Cleveland: Jewett, Proctor & Worthington, 1852. [Rare Stacks PZ3.S89 UN4]

Secondary Sources

Bardaglio, Peter W.  “On the Border: White Children and the Politics of War in Maryland.”  In The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War, edited by Joan E. Cashin, 313-331.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. [McKeldin Stacks E468.9.W28 2002]

Blackwell, Sarah Ellen.  A Military Genius, Life of Anna Ella Carroll, of Maryland. Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler, Printers, 1891.  [MD Rare Stacks E472.9 .C31 1891]

Brugger, Robert J. Maryland, A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980.  Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. [MD Stacks F181 .B85 1988]

Coryell, Janet L. Neither Heroine Nor Fool: Anna Ella Carroll of Maryland. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1990. [McKedlin Stacks E472.9.C33 C67 1990]

Larson, C. Kay. Great Necessities: The Life, Times, and Writings of Anna Ella Carroll, 1815-1894. Philadelphia, Xlibris, 2004. [MD Stacks E472.9 .L37 2004]

Case 6: “My Dear Wife”: Letters Home from the Battlefront

Primary Sources

James F. Stepter (Steptoe) Papers. Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Johnson & Ward. Johnson’s Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia. 1864. Maryland Map Collection, MAS 004, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Letter from John J. Hostetler, army private, to his father, Joseph Hosteter, September 5, 1862Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #3872, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.       

Secondary Sources

Fallin, Jack F. "A Family War," Journal of the Maryland Genealogical Society 52, 2 (August 2011): 229-291  [MD Stacks F180.M362]

Giesberg, Judith. Army at Home: Women and the Civil War on the Northern Home Front.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2009. [McKeldin Stacks E628.G538 2009]

Case 7: “…I am other than my appearance indicates”: Women as Soldiers and Spies

Primary Sources

Edmonds, S. Emma E.  Nurse and Spy in the Union Army: The Adventures and Experiences of a Woman in Hospitals, Camps, and Battle-fields.  Hartford: W. S. Williams & Co., 1865. [MD Rare Stacks E608 .E24]

United States Engineer Department. Map of Antietam Battlefield, 1867. Maryland Map Collection WA 013, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Brugger, Robert J. Maryland, A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980.  Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. [MD Stacks F181 .B85 1988]

Clark, Charles B. “Suppression and Control in Maryland, 1861-1865: A Study of Federal-State Relations During Civil Conflict,” Maryland Historical Magazine 54, 3 (September 1959):241-271.  [MD Stacks F176. M18]

Conklin, E.F. Exile to Sweet Dixie: The Story of Euphemia Goldsborough Confederate Nurse and Smuggler. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 1998. [MD Stacks E625.W55C66 1998]

Davis, Curtis Carroll. “Maryland Heroine of the Civil War.” Baltimore Sun. October 6, 1968. 

Eggleston, Larry G.  Women in the Civil War: Extraordinary Stories of Soldiers, Spies, Nurses, Doctors, Crusaders, and Others. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2003. [McKeldin Stacks E628 .E375 2003]

Floyd, Claudia. “Baltimore’s Confederate Women: Perpetuating a Culture of War,” Maryland Historical Magazine 106, 1 (Spring 2011): 36-61. [MD Stacks F176.M18]

Laffrado, Laura.  Uncommon Women: Gender and Representation in Nineteenth-Century U.S.Women’s Writing. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2009.   [McKeldin Stacks PS152 .L34 2009]

Case 8: “The Rebels Dream in Prison”: Sketches of Women at Point Lookout 

Primary Sources

Jones, G. W.  In Prison at Point Lookout.  Martinsville (Va.): Bulletin Print & Pub. Co., n.d. [MD Stacks E616.L8 J7]

Omenhausser, John Jacob.  Sketchbook. Maryland Manuscripts Collection #5213, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.       

Point Lookout, Md. View of Hammond Genl. Hospital & U.S. Genl. Depot for Prisoners of War, color lithograph by E.. Sachse & Co., Baltimore,1864)Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003656672/]

Secondary Sources

Beitzell, Edwin W.  Point Lookout Prison Camp for Confederates.  Abell, MD: Edwin W. Beitzell, 1972.   [MD Folio E616.L8 B45]

Cottom, Robert L. and Mary Ellen Hayward. “Point Lookout.”  In Maryland in the Civil War: A House Divided, 104-109.  Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1994.[MD Folio F185.C68 1994]

Kimmel, Ross M.  “I Am Busy Drawing Pictures,” Civil War Times, 41 (May, 2002): 38-44.  [McKeldin Periodical Stacks E461.C563]

Sketches from Prison: A Confederate Artist’s Record of Life at Point Lookout Prisoner-of-War Camp, 1863-1865.  Baltimore: Maryland State Park Foundation, 1990. [MD Stacks  E616.L8 S54]

Schairer, Jack. E.  Lee’s Bold Plan for Point Lookout: The Rescue of Confederate Prisoners of War that Never Happened.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2008. [MD Stacks  E616.L8 S33 2008]

Sword, Gerald J. “Stanley J. Morrow, A Civil War Photographer at Point Lookout, Maryland,” Chronicles of St. Mary’s 31 (December, 1983): 105-111. [MD Folio F187.S2 C4]

Case 9: "The first day of Freedom in Maryland": Slavery in a Border State

Primary Sources

Leonidas Dodson Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Slave account book of Charles Benedict Calvert. circa 1850s. Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #4077, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Still, William. The Underground Railroad. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872. [MD Rare Stacks E 450.S85 1872]

Secondary Sources

Brackett, Jeffrey R. The Negro in Maryland: A Study of the Institution of Slavery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1889. [MD Stacks H31.J62 vol. 6]

Fields, Barbara Jean. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.  [MD Stacks E445.M3F54 1985]

Guy, Anita Aidt. Maryland’s Persistent Pursuit to End Slavery, 1850-1864. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997.  [MD Stacks E445.M3G89 1997]

Case 10: “Be Paid to Said Wife”: Civil War Bounties

Primary Sources

State of Maryland Bounty Forms signed by Charlotte Cottman, 1866. Maryland Manuscripts Collection, #3898, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Maryland Legislature. General Assembly of Maryland. Laws of Maryland. Annapolis, Md.: Richard P. Bayly, Printer, 1864. [MD Rare Stacks KFM1230.A25 1864]

Maryland Legislature, Senate of Maryland. Journal of the Proceedings of the Senate of Maryland. Annapolis, Md.: Mittag & Sneary, 1864. [MD Rare Stacks J87.M32 1864]

Still, William. The Underground Railroad. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872. [MD Rare Stacks E 450.S85 1872]

Secondary Sources

Berlin, Ira, Barbara J. Fields, Steven F. Miller, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowland, eds. Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery Freedom, and the Civil War. New York: The New York Press, 1992.  [MD Stacks E185.2.F8 1992]

Jacobs, Sharita  'Competing realities: Black southern Marylanders and their quest to shape freedom in "loyal" Maryland 1860--1880.’ Ph.D. diss., Howard University ,2009. In  Proquest Dissertations & Theses: Full Text [database on-line]; available from http://www.proquest.com publication number AAT 3365868 (accessed February 28, 2011).

Case 11: “A sad day of absorbing interest and distress”: Women’s Diaries During the War

Primary Sources

American Fashionable Letter Writer. Troy, N.Y.: Merriam, Moore, 1850. [Special Collections Stacks ACEI 503]

Brooke Family Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College  Park, Md.

Preston Family Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Beauchamp, Virginia Walcott.  A Private War: Letters and Diaries of Madge Preston 1862-1867. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987. [MD Stacks HV6626.P73 1987]

Farquhar, William H. Annals of Sandy Spring or Twenty Years History of A Rural Community in Maryland. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey, 1884.
             [MD Rare Stacks  F189.S2 A6]

Case 12: “When I realize what I have stood against”:  Nursing the War’s Wounded 

Primary Sources

Alcott, Louisa M. Hospital Sketches and Camp and Fireside Stories.Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1885.  [Rare Stacks E621 .A34 1885]

Clara Barton Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

“The ladies of Hagerstown, MD, ministering to the wounded.” Harper’s Weekly, New York, October 1862. [new acquisition to the MD Rare Books collection; Mircofilm available McKeldin Periodicals AP2.H32]

Secondary Sources

Damman, Gordon E. and Alfred Jay Bollet.  Images of Civil War Medicine: A Photographic History.  New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2008. [McKeldin Stacks E621.D36 2008]

Ernst, Kathleen.  Too Afraid to Cry: Maryland Civilians in the Antietam Campaign. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999. [MD Stacks E474.61 .E76 1999]

McNeil, Betty Ann, “Memoirs of the Daughters of Charity as Civil War Nurses in Maryland, 1862.”  In Mid-Maryland History: Conflict, Growth and Change, edited by Barbara M. Powell and Michael A. Powell, 61-69.  Charleston: History Press, 2008.  [MD Stacks F187.F8 M54 2008]

Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. Clara Barton: Professional Angel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.[McKeldin Stacks HV569.B3 P78 1987]

Reimer, Terry.  One Vast Hospital: The Civil War Hospital Sites in Frederick, Maryland after Antietam, with Detailed Hospital Patient List. Frederick, Md.: The National Museum of Civil War Medicine, 2001. [MD Folio E474.65 .R45 2001]

Ross, Ishbel.  Angel of the Battlefield: The Life of Clara Barton. New York: Harper & Row, 1956. [MD Stacks HV569.B3 R6 1956]

Schultz, Jane E.  “Seldom Thanked, Never Praised, and Scarcely Recognized: Gender and Racism in Civil War Hospitals,” Civil War History 48, 3 (2002): 220-236. [McKeldin Periodical Stacks  E461.C5]

Schultz, Jane E.  Women at the Front: Hospital Workers in Civil War America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. [McKeldin Stacks E621.S35 2004]

Silber, Nina., “Saving the Sick, Healing the Nation.”  In Daughters of the Union: Northern Women Fight the Civil War, 194-221.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005. [MD Stacks E628 .S55 2005]

Case 13: “…the picture that you Sent me”: Civil War-Era Photographs

Primary Sources

Byron Family Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Hendricks and Hamilton Families Papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries , College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: A Cultural History. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. [Art Library Folio TR15 .M273 2011]

Severa, Joan L.  Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1995. [McKeldin Stacks GT610 .S42 1995]

Simpson, Lorraine Hennings.  “A Historical Survey of Women’s Clothing During the Civil War Decade, 1860-1870.”  (Master’s Thesis, University of Maryland College Park, 1960). [MD Thesis LD3231.M70m Simpson, L. H.]

American Memory from the Library of Congress. “Civil War photograph album, ca. 1861-65,” in Words and Deeds in American History: Selected Documents Celebrating the Manuscript Division’s First 100 Years. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mcchtml/corhome.html (accessed April 12, 2011).

Conclusion: Emerging from the Border

Primary Sources

Maryland Chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy Membership Records, 1899-1938, Maryland Manuscripts Collection #5484a-b, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, Md.

Secondary Sources

Cottom, Robert I., and Mary Ellen Hayward. Maryland in the Civil War: A House Divided. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1994. [MD Folio F185 .C68 1994]

Davidson, Laura Lee.  The Services of the Women of Maryland to the Confederate  States:A Prize Essay.  Baltimore, 1920. [MD Stacks E566.9.D3]

Scott, Anne Firor.  Natural Allies: Women’s Associations in American History.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991. [McKeldin Stacks HQ1904.S28 1993]